The golden ratio is a magical number that divides a line into the most beautiful ratio. It bestows a mystical power in an object and allows for the creation of excellent architecture and art.
This magical ratio is (1 + √5)/2, or 1.618033988. If there is a line divided by the golden ratio called a + b, then b:a and a:(a + b) are both the same ratio.
We can find the golden ratio in countless values seen in animals and plants. A snail shell’s golden spiral allows for the snail to grow without changing shape, while the distribution of branches on a tree also follows the ratio. The golden ratio controls everything from the spiral pattern of galaxies to the pattern of our brain waves. The golden ratio is the law of the universe.
Using this magical ratio, we can find the most beautiful composition of a human being. The Venus of Milo, considered as one of the most beautiful figures in history, has a ratio of 1:1.618 between her upper and lower body (divided at the belly button) - the golden ratio. The same can be said for the ratio between the head and neck compared to the rest of the upper body, and the length from the belly button to the knee compared to the length below the knee. The exact same composition was used to construct the statue of Doryphoros, one of the most famous examples of ancient Greek sculptures. The diagram that illustrates these ratios is the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci (Vitruvius was a Roman architect who utilised the ancient Greek knowledge of applying the proportions of a human being, i.e. the golden ratio, in constructing temples).
The Great Pyramids of Giza, Solomon’s Temple and the Parthenon are all partially constructed according to the golden ratio. It is said that buildings constructed outside of the golden ratio will collapse over time. The same is seen in Eastern constructions, such as buildings and inventions from the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea.
Interestingly, the golden ratio applies to intangible objects as well. For example, Chopin’s Nocturne pieces tend to climax at the point of the golden ratio (roughly two-thirds in). The ratio is still used in modern day design, with the standard credit card size being the best example.
The golden ratio is an eternal beauty that does not go out of fashion with time.